1. Which type/s of traditional assessment/ testing are you inclined to choose? Why?
Traditional assessments are usually true/false, matching, or multiple choice. These assessments are easy to grade, but only test isolated application, facts, or memorized data at lower-level thinking skills and it can be useful if I just want to check the students memory or knowledge about facts. I think I preferred the identification type and enumeration because it can easily give what are the needed output for the students, unlike in true/false quizzes the students can guess answers and they can get higher grades. Same with multiple choices, the students can guess and some questions are tricky. The goal is not give tricky questions but to fairly and accurately assess the students.
2. Is it possible to ensure that the traditional assessment you craft will be good assessment, no less effective than an alternative assessment?
Traditional assessments are tests given to the students by the teachers to measure how much the students have learned. I think it is possible to ensure that traditional assessment can craft a good assessment like all other methods of assessment, traditional assessment has strengths and weaknesses. Traditional assessments generally have high practicality because they take little time to administer and score. The questions are generally objective and there is only one correct response. There is not a lot of room for bias in the grading of traditional assessments. Traditional assessments can be completed within a class period and can be handed back to the students immediately. Traditional assessment methods can be effective in many classrooms. The high practicality of traditional assessments is appealing to teachers. It is important to consider the goal of an assessment and then determine which method would be best employed.
Traditional assessment methods have drawbacks as well. If the test is in the form of multiple choice, it is difficult to develop a test that is reliable and has high validity. The teacher has to be very attentive to the questions asked and in the choices given. In order for the test to have high validity, there has to be reasonable dis-tractors among the choices.
The most widely used traditional assessment tools are multiple-choice tests, true/false tests, short answers, and essays. True/false tests: True/false items require students to make a decision and find out which of two potential responses is true. Since they are easy to score, it is easy to administer true/false tests. However, guessing might increase the chance of success by 50%. Especially, when the test item is false, it is quite hard to find out whether the student really knows the correct response. One possible solution is to ask student to provide with an explanation for the incorrect item, or rewrite the statement correctly. However, this affects the ease in scoring negatively (Simonson et al., 2000). Multiple-choice tests: Multiple-choice tests are commonly utilized by teachers, schools, and assessment organizations for the following reasons (Bailey, 1998, p. 130): 1. 2. They are fast, easy, and economical to score.
In fact, they are machine scorable. They can be scored objectively and thus may give the test appearance of being fairer and/or more reliable than subjectively scored tests. 3. 4. They “look like” tests and may thus seem to be acceptable by convention. They reduce the chances of learners guessing the correct items in comparison to true-false items. Simonson and others discussed the disadvantages of multiple choice tests. They claimed that depending on the level of cognitive effort, they become harder and more time consuming to create. In other words, multiple choice items can be used effectively in testing the items that demand low level of cognitive effort such as recalling previously memorized knowledge, yet items that require students to use higher order thinking skills such as analyzing and synthesizing are more difficult to produce (2000).
Essays are effective assessment tools since the questions are flexible and assess the higher order learning skills. However, they are not very practical due to the fact that it is very difficult and time consuming to score the essays. Moreover, subjectivity might be an issue in scoring. Creating a rubric might be helpful to grade the essays (Simonson et al., 2000).
Instructors have an option to create, adapt, or adopt rubrics depending on their instructional needs. . Short-answer tests: In short-answer tests “items are written either as a direct question requiring the learner fill in a word or phrase or as statements in which a space has been left blank for a brief written answer” ). Furthermore, the questions need to be precise. Otherwise, the items that are open to interpretations allow learners to fill in the blanks with any possible information (Simonson et al., 2000
3. What are some issues with norm-referenced tests? Are there issues with criterion-referenced tests?
The issue in norm-referenced tests is that it cannot measure progress of the population as a whole, only where individuals fall within the whole. Thus, measuring against only a fixed goal can be used to measure the success of an educational reform program that seeks to raise the achievement of all students against new standards that seek to assess skills beyond choosing among multiple choices. However, in practice, the bar has often been moved in the face of excessive failure rates, and improvement sometimes occurs simply because of familiarity with and teaching to the same test.With a norm-referenced test, grade level was traditionally set at the level set by the middle 50 percent of scores.
It can be approve if all school will conduct the exam in the same manner, reducing such inaccuracies as time differences or environmental differences that may cause distractions to the students. This also makes these assessments fairly accurate as far as results are concerned, a major advantage for a test. Critics of criterion-referenced tests point out that judges set bookmarks around items of varying difficulty without considering whether the items actually are compliant with grade level content standards or are developmentally appropriate
A norm-referenced test has none of these problems because it does not seek to enforce any expectation of what all students should know or be able to do other than what actual students demonstrate. Present levels of performance and inequity are taken as fact, not as defects to be removed by a redesigned system. The disadvantages include standards based assessments measure the level that students are currently by measuring against where their peers are currently at instead of the level that both students should be at. Because it is a rank-based system produces only data that tell which average students perform at an average level, which students do better, and which students do worse, contradicting fundamental beliefs, whether optimistic or simply unfounded, that all will perform at one uniformly high level in a standards based system if enough incentives and punishments are put into place. This difference in beliefs underlies the most significant differences between a traditional and a standards based education system.
Norm Referenced VS Criterion Referenced Tests